PUB-2015-EAC

Exploring and Controlling Intrinsic Defect Formation in SnO2 Thin Films

Yoann Porte , Robert Maller , Hendrik Faber , Husam N Alshareef , Thomas D Anthopoulos and Martyn McLachlan ,"Exploring and Controlling Intrinsic Defect Formation in SnO2 Thin Films"​
​J. Mater. Chem. C, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5TC03520A
Yoann Porte, Robert Maller, Hendrik Faber, Husam N Alshareef, Thomas D Anthopoulos and Martyn McLachlan
defect, SnO2
2015
By investigating the influence of key growth variables on the measured structural and electrical properties of SnO2 prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) we demonstrate fine control of intrinsic n-type defect formation. Variation of growth temperatures shows oxygen vacancies (VO) as the dominant defect which can be compensated for by thermal oxidation at temperatures > 500°C. As a consequence films with carrier concentrations in the range 1016-1019 cm-3 can be prepared by adjusting temperature alone. By altering the background oxygen pressure (PD) we observe a change in the dominant defect - from tin interstitials (Sni) at low PD (< 50 mTorr) to VO at higher oxygen pressures with similar ranges of carrier concentrations observed. Finally we demonstrate the importance of controlling the composition target surface used for PLD by exposing a target to > 100,000 laser pulses. Here carrier concentrations > 1x1020 cm-3 are observed that are attributed to high concentrations of Sni which cannot be completely compensated for by modifying the growth parameters.