Patent No . : US 10,068,630 B2
Ferroelectric components, such as the ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs), ferroelectric capacitors and ferroelectric diodes described above may be operated as multi-level memory cells as described by the present invention. Storing multiple bits of information in each multi-level memory cell may be performed by a controller coupled to an array of the ferroelectric components configured as ferroelectric memory cells. The controller may execute the steps of receiving a bit pattern for writing to a multi-level memory cell comprising a ferroelectric layer; selecting a pulse duration for applying a write pulse to the memory cell based, at least in part, on the received bit pattern; and applying at least one write pulse to the memory cell having the selected pulse duration, in which the at least one write pulse creates a remnant polarization within the ferroelectric layer that is representative of the received bit pattern.