The limited resources of Li and its non-uniform geographic distribution makes it essential that alternate mobile ion batteries are developed. Sodium (Na) for example is more abundant and therefore less costly than Li. Thus, despite its lower energy density, Na ion batteries are promising alternative to Li ion batteries for stationary applications. Other mobile ions such as K, Mg, Zn, Al offer advantages over Li including stability, safety, cost, and are being investigated by our group. We are specifically targeting oxide anodes for mobile ion battery applications, including layered oxides, atomic layer deposited oxides, and other layered inorganic materials. Emphasis is on mechanistic studies to understand how emerging classes of material store ionic charge. In-situ and Ex-situ characterization methods are used to carry out our investigations.